The use of 15-passenger vans to transport athletic participants has come under scrutiny because of the documented "rollover" risks and the associated "catastrophic" liability potential resulting from serious injuries or deaths to multiple passengers.
The National Safety Transportation Board examined single-vehicle crash data from seven states for the years 1994-97 and issued multiple reports and warnings with the latest in 2012. The latest advisory is toned down from earlier warnings but concerns remain even though manufacturers tout recent safety enhancements for later models. The warnings appear to be having a positive impact as reported deaths from 15-passenger accidents have decreased significantly.
To follow is a summary of the most recent 2012 NHTSA advisory:
- 15-passenger vans should never be overloaded with passengers or cargo as they can increase the rollover risk and make the van more unstable in any handling maneuvers.
- All drivers should be properly licensed and experienced in the operation of 15-passenger vans.
- All passengers should wear seat belts. The majority of all deaths have occurred to passengers who were not buckled up and who were thrown from the van.
- The van should be regularly maintained.
- Steering and suspension components should be inspected per manufacturer's guidelines.
- Tires must be properly sized and load rated. See the owner's manual and door pillar for more information.
- Tires should be inspected before every trip for proper inflation and signs of wear and tear. See owner's manual and door pillar for proper inflation information.
- Spare tires should not be used as replacements and many manufacturers recommend that tires over 10 years old not be used.
To follow is a summary from prior NHTSA warnings and other risk management sources
- When a 15-passenger van is loaded with 10 or more occupants, it is three times as likely to rollover as compared with fewer than 10 occupants.
- The rollover propensity is greatly increased at speeds greater than 50 mph and on curved roads.
- The standard design of the 15-passenger van does not meet the structural reinforcement requirements of passenger cars or school buses in the area behind the driver's seat.
- Federal law prohibits the sale of 15-passenger vans for school related transportation of high school and younger students. See detailed explanation.
- Many state laws prohibit the use of 15-passenger vans to transport public high school students to and from school and to and from school-related events. See state by state chart on law status.
- Additional research indicates that 12-passenger vans don't fare much better and some SUV's pose significant rollover risks.
- Safecar.gov offers additional information on van safety.
In response to these concerns, it is recommended that sports organizations that transport high school aged and younger children should adopt the following regulations
- Always require parents to transport their children whenever feasible.
- For those sports organizations that rent or borrow their vehicles, 15-passenger and 12-passenger vans should never be used and better substitution vehicles include seven-passenger mini vans, passenger cars or school buses that have a much lower rollover propensity at higher occupant loads.
- For those sports organizations that already own 15-passenger and 12-passenger vans, such vans should be replaced with safer alternatives such as mini vans or school buses as soon as feasible.
If a sports organization is going to use a 15- or 12-passenger van to transport participants despite the warnings, the following precautions should be followed
- Always use a trained, experienced driver who is not a student. Although the driver of a 15- or 12-passenger van is not required to have a Commercial Drivers License (CDL), such driver should understand and be familiar with the handling characteristics of a fully loaded van. The driver should be well rested and attentive, and not under the influence of drugs. In addition, it is best if someone other than the coach is the driver since the coach may be exhausted or distracted by the outcome of the game or by team performance issues. A motor vehicle record (MVR) should be run on all drivers to make sure that they have no more than two minor violations in the prior three years and no major offenses, such as a DUI or reckless driving offense, in the prior five years.
- Drivers should be aware of the following conditions that most often result in rollovers:
- The van goes off a rural road and hits a ditch, embankment or soft soil.
- The driver is fatigued, falls asleep at the wheel or is driving too fast for conditions. Vans traveling at high speeds where the driver loses control often slide sideways off the road.
- The driver overcorrects the steering as a panic reaction to an emergency or to a wheel that leaves the pavement.
- Insist that all occupants wear safety belts for the entire duration of the trip. Seventy-six percent of those who died in 15-passenger van rollovers in single-vehicle crashes from 1990 to 2002 were not buckled up. An unrestrained 15-passenger van occupant involved in a single vehicle crash is about three times as likely to be killed as a restrained occupant.
- If possible, move passengers and cargo forward of the rear axle and avoid placing loads on the roof.
- Check tires before any trip to make sure that they are properly inflated and not excessively worn. The pressure of each tire should be checked when "cold" and set to the recommended inflation pressure as specified on the vehicle placard in the owner's manual. It may be surprising to many that the typical recommended pressure for the rear tires can be much higher than for the front tires. Vans should always be equipped with a tire gauge.
Under most state laws, the sports organization can be sued along with the owner and driver of the vehicle whenever there is an auto accident resulting in injuries. Many insurance carriers that provide Non Owned/Hired Auto Liability insurance for sports organizations exclude coverage for lawsuits arising out of the use of 15-passenger vans or the transportation of participants. You need to be aware if your insurance policy contains these exclusions.
Some sports organizations transfer the risk of group transportation by hiring a charter bus service. Always request that charter bus service provide a Certificate of Insurance evidencing that they carry a Business Auto policy with a liability limit of at least $1,000,000 for all owned autos.
Courtesy of John M. Sadler, JD, CIC; Member of the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee; President Sadler Sports & Recreation Insurance